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The Jivaro are a tribe of people from the Andes mountains. The name "Jivaro" was given to this group of people by Spanish conquerors. The Jivaro prefer the name Shuar.
Their history as great warriors goes back to the days of the expansion of the Inca empire when the Jivaro fought to remain free of Inca control.
They also battled the Spanish during the Spanish Conquest. In the centuries following the conquest, the Jivaro continued to fight modern society, resisting successive waves of missionaries.
Once known for their practice of shrinking human heads, some Jivaro are quickly adapting to contemporary life. No longer isolated from society, their traditional life-style is fading as their villages adopt modern ways.
Most Jivaro, however, remain isolated and continue to live a traditional way of life. The Jivaro live on the eastern slopes of the Andes where mountain ranges meet the Amazon River headwaters.
This tropical forest region is characterized by frequent, heavy rainfall and dense tropical vegetation.
The Jivaro are mainly concentrated in Ecuador. Current estimates place the population at approximately 10, to 30, people.
The Jivaro speak Jivaroan, which has many dialects. Many Jivaro now also speak the Quechua language, which is spoken throughout the Andes region.
A variety of ancient myths have been passed down through the generations to explain the origins of the Jivaro people. In one story, the Andean foothills were subject to a severe flood, killing all but two brothers.
When the waters receded and the brothers returned to their shelter, they found dishes of food laid out for them by two parrots.
The largest snake in the Amazon basin, it is respected and feared both for its strength and because it is believed to possess supernatural powers.
The Jivaro believe that spiritual forces are responsible for real-world occurrences. They believe spirits inhabit animals, plants, and objects.
Many daily customs and behaviors are guided by their desire for spiritual power or to avoid evil spirits. The Jivaro worship many deities, or gods.
Nungui, or Earth Mother, is believed to have the power to make plants grow. Living deep underground, she emerges at night to dance in the garden.
Jivaro believe in a protective spirit that comes to them in a vision. This spirit, known as arutam , is thought to protect them from injury, disease, and death.
Jivaro may share in celebrations of national holidays if they are visiting an area where festivities are taking place. Jivaro rites of passage and celebrations are connected to their spiritual beliefs.
All personal milestones and important events have spiritual significance. The most important moment in a young male Jivaro's life is when he is encouraged to gain his arutam or protective spirit.
Parents fear that without this protective spirit, Jivaro youths will not survive into adulthood. At or before puberty, young male Jivaro are led deep into the forest.
There they consume a hallucinogenic drug called maikoa and then await a vision of the arutam soul that will protect them from danger.
They may remain in the forest for days, fasting and bathing in a waterfall, while they await the sacred vision.
Once this power is received, the boy is allowed to participate in many adult activities. The Jivaro are a very sociable people.
When visiting a neighbor or relative's house, guests enjoy a hospitable welcome. Beer made from manioc cassava root is offered, and the family meal is shared.
Often, if the distances traveled are great, guests are invited to stay for several days. Banana leaves laid on the dirt floor serve as beds for visitors.
In contrast to Western cultures, it is the Jivaro men who are fussy about their appearance. A man may spend hours before a visit or party painting his face and putting decorative adornments on his clothes and in his hair.
Parrot feathers adorn the hair, and ear sticks are placed through holes in the ear. The fangs of a boa constrictor, thought to bring good luck, are a common gift for a potential bride.
If she returns the gestures of affection to her suitor, he may begin negotiations with the woman's father to marry her. Romantic love and mutual attraction are very important in the selection of a spouse.
The husband is obligated to pay a bride price a payment to her family or perform services for the wife's father.
Jivaro families live in large one-room shelters without internal walls or rooms for privacy. Traditional Jivaro houses are large ovals built from materials found in the forest.
These shelters, called jivaria, generally house large families of about eight to ten people. Contemporary Jivaro houses resemble the one pictured on the next page.
However, only a small minority of Jivaro live in contemporary houses. Jivaria houses are built by the male head of the household with help from his male relatives.
Houses must be strong to withstand heavy rainfall. Houses have very simple furniture: lowlying beds made of bamboo with no mattresses and shelves to store basic pottery.
The Jivaro are completely without political organization. The only unit of organization is the family group. The Jivaro population is widely dispersed, with an average of one to five miles one-and-a-half to eight kilometers between houses.
Families live in a house for no more than ten years, since the nearby supply of firewood and small game becomes depleted. Families then move a few miles or kilometers away to an area richer in resources.
The division of labor is partly the result of the belief that most things have either male or female souls. Manioc cassava , for example, is thought to be female, so all tasks related to the planting, reaping, and processing of manioc are the domain of women.
Planting and reaping of corn, which has a male soul, are the responsibility of men. Most Jivaro families have one or two dogs.
They are not kept as pets, but rather as an essential aid to hunting and for protection from enemies. Dogs hold a privileged position in Jivaro households.
Both men and women wear clothes made of plain brown cloth, occasionally painted with vertical stripes. These homewoven clothes are durable and rugged and can last for many years.
More recently, the Jivaro are acquiring Western clothing. These manufactured clothes are often used for special occasions such as visits to neighboring families.
The Jivaro have a varied diet of meat and vegetables that they obtain from many sources. The primary foods of their diet are the vegetables grown in their gardens.
These are supplemented by searching for wild plantains and other edible plants. Protein in the diet is provided by raising chickens and hunting wild game.
Most Jivaro children receive little formal education, although programs are being instituted to educate all Jivaro children.
In some remote Jivaro settlements, lessons are broadcast via radio. Jivaro children are also taught the skills needed for survival in the jungle.
For example, they are taught how to swim at a very young age. Due to the widely dispersed population, most children have little contact with playmates other than their siblings.
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The Jivaro also believe in an act of what may be considered telling the future or telling time. Bennett makes another note of the Jivaro and their ayahuasca ceremonies, where a Jivaro will hire a shaman to tell of far away friends and family.
These distant persons apparently have to be individuals with whom the shaman is already acquainted, so that he can "know whom to look for.
The Jivaro have been practicing these ceremonies for hundreds of years, keeping them held close to their roots. The ceremonies of the ayahuasca brew continue to be practiced this day.
The Shuar believe that the first being, Tensak, casts a spiritual dart to curse or heal a person. Bennett recorded that the Tensak "exists in a higher plane of existence that can be seen when in the shaman state.
Anthropologists have recognized these languages [which? The first has to do with nomenclature: Jivaroan language speakers typically identify themselves either by their language's word for person shuar or by the name of the river on which they live.
Consequently, historical sources record either one name for all, or a plethora names of many small Jivaroan tribes, each the name of a different river.
The second reason has to do with social organization. Prior to Ecuadorian or Peruvian colonization and Christian missionization in the 20th century, the principal unit of Jivaroan social organization was the polygynous matrilocal household or cluster of matrilocally-organized households.
Notably, although Jivaroans shared the same language and culture, each household or cluster of matrilocally organized households were politically and economically autonomous.
With this, however, their unity ends. The scores of small independent groups, living for the most part on the headwaters of the tributary streams, are constantly at war, one group with another.
Such groupings as exist are continually shifting location, separating, amalgamating, or being exterminated. Prior to colonization and the presence of Christian missionaries, Jivaroan speakers were not organized into any stable and clearly bounded polities or ethnic groups.
At the time of Spanish arrival to South America, the Jivaro were an independent culture and hostile to outsiders.
The neighboring Incas tried to subjugate the Jivaroan peoples, but the Inca Empire's expansion attempts failed after a series of bloody confrontations where the Inca army lost against the fierce Jivaroan warriors.
The Jivaro put up a similar resistance to Spaniards, who came into their territory searching for placer gold.
Until the middle of the nineteenth century, the Jivaroan tribes had only limited and intermittent contact with the Spanish.