Der Jack-O'Lantern-Brauch geht auf eine Halloween-Tradition irischer Einwanderer zurück, die ihn in die USA gebracht und dort ausgebaut hatten. Jack O'Latern Halloween-Geschichte zum Ursprung der Kürbislaterne. Kürbislampe ein ausgehöhlter Kürbis mit Kerze als Symbol für Halloween. Den ausgehöhlten Kürbis, den wir alle mit Halloween verbinden, nennt man auf Englisch auch „Jack O'Lantern“, was so viel wie „Jack mit.
Halloween und Jack O LaternDie Legende von Jack O`LanternVor sehr langer Zeit lebte in Irland ein Hufschmied namens Jack. Eines Abend vor Allerheiligen saß der geizige und. Den ausgehöhlten Kürbis, den wir alle mit Halloween verbinden, nennt man auf Englisch auch „Jack O'Lantern“, was so viel wie „Jack mit. Jack O'Latern Halloween-Geschichte zum Ursprung der Kürbislaterne. Kürbislampe ein ausgehöhlter Kürbis mit Kerze als Symbol für Halloween.
Hutton points out that Rhy's unsubstantiated notions were further popularised by Frazer who used them to support an idea of his own, that Samhain, as well as being the origin of Halloween, had also been a pagan Celtic feast of the dead—a notion used to account for the element of ghosts, witches and other unworldly spirits commonly featured within Halloween.
Halloween's preoccupation with the netherworld and with the supernatural owes more to the Christian festival of All Saints or All Souls, rather than vice versa.
Halloween is more Christian than Pagan". The Washington Post. Retrieved 15 October So what does this all mean?
It means that when we celebrate Halloween, we are definitely participating in a tradition with deep historical roots. Salzburger Nachrichten.
Archived from the original on 17 March Retrieved 11 August Moser sieht die Ursprünge von Halloween insgesamt in einem christlichen Brauch, nicht in einem keltischen.
Halloween in der Steiermark und anderswo in German. LIT Verlag Münster. Abgesehen von Irrtümern wie die Herleitung des Fests in ungebrochener Tradition "seit Jahren" ist eine mangelnde vertrautheit mit der heimischen Folklore festzustellen.
Allerheiligen war lange vor der Halloween invasion ein wichtiger Brauchtermin und ist das ncoh heute. So wie viele heimische Bräuche generell als fruchtbarkeitsbringend und dämonenaustreibend interpretiert werden, was trottz aller Aufklärungsarbeit nicht auszurotten ist, begegnet uns Halloween als Aber es wird nicht als solches inszeniert.
Döring, Dr. Volkskundler Alois Ist Halloween schon wieder out? Westdeutscher Rundfunk. Archived from the original on 14 June Retrieved 12 November Darin widerspricht Döring der These, Halloween sei ursprünglich ein keltisch-heidnisches Totenfest.
Irische Einwanderer hätten das Fest nach Amerika gebracht, so Döring, von wo aus es als "amerikanischer" Brauch nach Europa zurückkehrte.
British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 29 October Teens in Finland. Most funerals are Lutheran, and nearly 98 percent of all funerals take place in a church.
It is customary to take pictures of funerals or even videotape them. To Finns, death is a part of the cycle of life, and a funeral is another special occasion worth remembering.
In fact, during All Hallow's Eve and Christmas Eve, cemeteries are known as valomeri , or seas of light. Finns visit cemeteries and light candles in remembrance of the deceased.
Duke University. Archived from the original PDF on 5 October Retrieved 31 May About All Hallows Eve: Tonight is the eve of All Saints Day, the festival in the Church that recalls the faith and witness of the men and women who have come before us.
The service celebrates our continuing communion with them, and memorializes the recently deceased. The early church followed the Jewish custom that a new day began at sundown; thus, feasts and festivals in the church were observed beginning the night before.
National Republic. Among the European nations the beautiful custom of lighting candles for the dead was always a part of the "All Hallow's Eve" festival.
Companion to the Calendar. Liturgy Training Publications. In most of Europe, Halloween is strictly a religious event.
Sometimes in North America the church's traditions are lost or confused. Cranston Herald. Archived from the original on 26 November By the early 20th century, Halloween, like Christmas, was commercialized.
Pre-made costumes, decorations and special candy all became available. The Christian origins of the holiday were downplayed. Leisure and entertainment in America.
Retrieved 2 June Halloween, a holiday with religious origins but increasingly secularized as celebrated in America, came to assume major proportions as a children's festivity.
Poolbeg Press. The vigil of the feast is Halloween, the night when charms and incantations were powerful, when people looked into the future, and when feasting and merriment were ordained.
Up to recent time this was a day of abstinence, when according to church ruling no flesh meat was allowed. Colcannon, apple cake and barm brack, as well as apples and nuts were part of the festive fare.
Retrieved 13 August In Ireland, dishes based on potatoes and other vegetables were associated with Halloween, as meat was forbidden during the Catholic vigil and fast leading up to All Saint's Day.
Archived from the original on 16 October Retrieved 13 October The American Desk Encyclopedia. Oxford: Oxford Univ.
Scottish National Dictionary. Archived from the original on 29 April University Press of Kentucky, p. New York: Oxford Univ. Retrieved 4 December Prentice Hall Press, Oxford University Press, The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore.
Infobase Publishing, Ireland: An Oxford Archaeological Guide. Infobase publishing. Infobase Publishing. Archived from the original on 23 April Retrieved 19 October They were both respected and feared.
The Fairy-Faith in Celtic Countries. Marian The Silver Bough, Volume 3. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Credo Reference.
Christmas in Ritual and Tradition. In The Celtic Consciousness , ed. Robert O'Driscoll. New York: Braziller, The Religion of the Ancient Celts.
Welsh Government. Archived from the original on 2 October Retrieved 2 October Christian leaders made old Celtic and Roman customs into new Christian ones.
Bonfires were once lighted against evil spirits. Now, they kept away the devil. Hallowe'en: its origin, rites and ceremonies in the Scottish tradition.
Albyn Press, British Folk Customs. Hutchinson, Oral folk-tales of Wessex. It is the medieval Christian festivals of All Saints' and All Souls' that provide our firmest foundation for Halloween.
From emphasizing dead souls both good and evil , to decorating skeletons, lighting candles for processions, building bonfires to ward off evil spirits, organizing community feasts, and even encouraging carnival practices like costumes, the medieval and early modern traditions of "Hallowtide" fit well with our modern holiday.
Lathrop , Fortress Press, p. Archived from the original on 18 September Retrieved 19 September Cambridge University Press.
Archived from the original on 30 October Retrieved 25 October Nicholas Magazine. And this custom became so favored in popular esteem that, for a long time, it was a regular observance in the country towns of England for small companies to go from parish to parish, begging soul-cakes by singing under the windows some such verse as this: 'Soul, souls, for a soul-cake; Pray you good mistress, a soul-cake!
A Cultural Encyclopedia of the Human Face. Trick-or-treating began as souling an English and Irish tradition in which the poor, wearing masks, would go door to door and beg for soul cakes in exchange for people's dead relatives.
Compendium of Symbolic and Ritual Plants in Europe. Quote: "Soul cakes were small cakes baked as food for the deceased or offered for the salvation of their souls.
They were therefore offered at funerals and feasts of the dead, laid on graves, or given to the poor as representatives of the dead.
The baking of these soul cakes is a universal practice". Cake: A Slice of History. Pegasus Books. Like the perennial favourites, hot cross buns; they were often marked with a cross to indicate that they were baked as alms.
Cambria Press. Pelican Publishing Company. Villagers were also encouraged to masquerade on this day, not to frighten unwelcome spirits, but to honor Christian saints.
Poor churches could not afford genuine relics and instead had processions in which parishioners dressed as saints, angels and devils.
It served the new church by giving an acceptable Christian basis to the custom of dressing up on Halloween. The Halloween Handbook.
Kensington Publishing Corporation. Another contributor to the custom of dressing up at Halloween was the old Irish practice of marking All Hallows' Day with religious pageants that recounted biblical events.
These were common during the Middle Ages all across Europe. The featured players dressed as saints and angels, but there were also plenty of roles for demons who had more fun, capering, acting devilish, and playing to the crows.
The pageant began inside the church, then moved by procession to the churchyard, where it continued long into the night.
Pelican Publishing, Ghosts in Popular Culture and Legend. Since the 16th century, costumes have become a central part of Halloween traditions.
Perhaps the most common traditional Halloween costume is that of the ghost. This is likely because The baking and sharing of souls cakes was introduced around the 15th century: in some cultures, the poor would go door to door to collect them in exchange for praying for the dead a practice called souling , often carrying lanterns made of hollowed-out turnips.
Around the 16th century, the practice of going house to house in disguise a practice called guising to ask for food began and was often accompanied by recitation of traditional verses a practice called mumming.
Wearing costumes, another tradition, has many possible explanations, such as it was done to confuse the spirits or souls who visited the earth or who rose from local graveyards to engage in what was called a Danse Macabre, basically a large party among the dead.
University of Pennsylvania Press. Halloween, incorporated into the Christian year as the eve of All Saints Day, marked the return of the souls of the departed and the release of devils who could move freely on that night.
Fires lit on that night served to prevent the influence of such spirits and to provide omens for the future. Modern children go from house to house at Halloween with flashlights powered by electric batteries, while jack o'lanterns perhaps with an actual candle, but often with a lightbulb glow from windows and porches.
And even then, the educated folk of the districts concerned, declared that these fires were a relic of papistical days when they were lit at night to guide the poor souls back to earth.
Christianity Today. Sometimes enacted as at village pageants, the danse macabre was also performed as court masques, the courtiers dressing up as corpses from various strata of society Halloween in der Steiermark und anderswo.
On the other hand the postmodern phenomenon of "antifashion" is also to be found in some Halloween costumes. Black and orange are a 'must' with many costumes.
Halloween — like the medieval danse macabre — is closely connected with superstitions and it might be a way of dealing with death in a playful way.
Gorham, p. Christian Origins of Halloween. Rose Publishing. In Protestant regions souling remained an important occasion for soliciting food and money from rich neighbors in preparation for the coming cold and dark months.
Fires were indeed lit in England on All Saints' Day, notably in Lancashire, and may well ultimately have descended from the same rites, but were essentially party of a Christian ceremony Each did so on a hill near its homestead, one person holding a large bunch of burning straw on the end of a fork.
The rest in a circle around and prayed for the souls of relatives and friends until the flames burned out.
The author who recorded this custom added that it gradually died out in the latter part of the century, but that before it had been very common and at nearby Whittingham such fires could be seen all around the horizon at Hallowe'en.
He went on to say that the name 'Purgatory Field', found across northern Lancashire, testified to an even wider distribution and that the rite itself was called 'Teen'lay'.
Halloween in a Globalising World". Gunnell and Co. The Halloween Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 27 July Frank Leslie's popular monthly, Volume 40, November , pp.
Archived from the original on 11 May Retrieved 23 October Why, it will gleam through the holes, and make thee look like a jack-o'-lantern! Schakel , Bucknell University Press, p.
New York: Oxford University Press. Burns: A Study of the Poems and Songs. Retrieved 27 November Legends and Lore of South Carolina. The History Press.
The practice of dressing up and going door to door for treats dates back to the middle ages and the practice of souling. Halloween Delights. Whispering Pine Press International.
The tradition continued in some areas of northern England as late as the s, with children going from door to door "souling" for cakes or money by singing a song.
The Irish Times. The expression trick or treat has only been used at front doors for the last 10 to 15 years. Before that "Help the Halloween Party" seems to have been the most popular phrase to holler.
Collins English Dictionary. Archived from the original on 14 October Wright, "A Halloween Story", St. Nicholas , October , p.
The Chicago Tribune also mentioned door-to-door begging in Aurora, Illinois on Halloween in , although not by the term 'trick-or-treating'.
The Guardian. The Morning Oregonian. Quote: "Trick or treat? Archived from the original on 4 June Archived from the original on 29 October Retrieved 14 November Good Housekeeping.
Archived from the original on 13 October Retrieved 16 October Fox News. Archived from the original on 5 October Retrieved 17 October Stackpole Books.
All Hallows' Eve. A time of spiritual unrest, when the souls of the dead, along with ghosts and evil spirits, were believed to walk the land.
When Jack Skellington had found out that Oogie Boogie had stolen the Doc's potion, he must stop him before Oogie drinks the whole potion.
They fail to reach him before he does, but they defeat him, as Oogie becomes overwhelmed with fear as a side effect of the potion.
Sora becomes worried about what will happen when he discovers his true memories, but Jack reassures him that fear is a sign of a strong heart.
In this game, Roxas arrives at Halloween Town while Jack is in the middle of a brainstorming for Halloween. Jack is having trouble with thinking of things but gets inspiration when he sees Roxas leaving through a Dark Corridor.
Time after time, Roxas' adventures through Halloween Town inspire Jack to create such things as balloons filled with spiders, exploding frost pumpkins, and Halloween lanterns.
When Roxas is sent to find the source of a terrible drop in heartless population, he finds the town overrun with monsters called Tentaclaws.
After seeing Roxas defeating the source of the Tentaclaws, the cannibalistic Leechgrave, Jack invents a terrifying scarecrowish version of Roxas as his centerpiece for that Halloween.
Following the film loosely to some degree, out of reference, Jack tries to take Santa Claus's place again.
To that end, Jack asks Sora and gang to help him be Santa's bodyguards. But after fighting the Heartless and Oogie Boogie, who has been resurrected by Maleficent, Santa explains to Jack that they each have a job to do with their respective holidays.
Despite this, he begins to wear a Santa suit Sally sewed together for him. In the second trip to Halloween Town, Jack still wears the Santa suit, as he still longs to deliver Christmas presents and feels that it would be rude not to wear the suit Sally worked so hard on.
Along with Sora and the gang, he helps defeat Doctor Finkelstein's experiment, who stole Christmas presents from Santa in search of a heart.
As a reward for all his hard work and assistance, Santa brings Jack on a ride-along with him in his sleigh for a while.
After Santa drops Jack off at Halloween Town, Jack learns the true meaning of Christmas by understanding the act of giving.
He dances with Sally in the end, finally realizing all of the gifts she had given to him were all from the heart and wishes to give her something in return.
She tells him that the nicest present she could ever ask for is just to be with Jack. Jack responds telling her that she does not even have to ask for that, meaning Jack feels the same way for her.
During a cut scene in the end credits, he is shown to be wearing his original suit, suggesting he has taken Santa's previous advice to heart completely, and apparently begins presenting new ideas for next Halloween.
In the Disney Infinity video game series , Jack appears as part of the second wave of playable characters. He has the ability to scare enemies and throw exploding Jack-O-Lanterns.
If he rides Ghost Rider 's motorcycle, his head will catch on fire, resembling Ghost Rider's flaming head. Jack and other characters appear throughout the ride wearing Christmas attire.
In a life-size Jack Skellington animatronic prop was released. The prop was six feet tall and sold exclusively at Spirit Halloween. In the Disney Infinity toys-to-life series, Jack appears as part of the second wave of playable figurines.
Jack has become one of Disney's most popular characters. Jamie Frater adds, "Jack is perfectly realized as the 'town hero' who seeks more in his life or death, as it may be , a place we all find ourselves time to time.
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